Apparently, yes. A new paper from HBS indicates that all things equal, a VC backed entrepreneur who starts a company that goes public, has a 30% chance of suceeding in their next venture. First time entrepreneurs, on the other hand, have only a 18% chance of succeeding. Meanwhile, entrepreneurs who failed in their previous venture, have a 20% chance of succeeding.
The paper provides evidence that performance persistance in entrepreneurship works. Read much more such additional insights in the entire paper here (PDF file).